2021 WAEC Geography Questions And Answers

2021 WAEC Geography Questions And Answers

2021 WAEC Geography Questions And Answers

Geography questions and answers for WAEC 2021.

Question 1

(a) List four modes of transportation.

(b) Identify four constraints to inland water navigation.

(c) In what four ways can the constraint identified in 2(a) above be solved?

Answers

– silting of river mouths

– problems of piracy

– presence of rapids, cataracts, waterfalls/dams

– fluctuations in the volumes of rivers

– presence of water weeds e.g. water hyacinth

– competition with other modes of transport

– slow speed

– freezing of rivers and lakes

– narrow gorges

– shallow nature of most river valleys

– non-flexibility

– presence of dangerous aquatic animals

– adverse weather conditions

– limited capital

– short courses of rivers

– rivers flowing through areas of limited commercial activities

– poor maintenance culture

– low patronage

– hazards of tree stumps

– poor navigational aids

– poor management

The solutions to the constraints are:

– dredging to increase the depth of rivers

– traffic control on rivers to check piracy

– channelization to avoid rapids and waterfalls

– removal of water weeds with herbicides/machines

– improving the technology of speed boat engines to increase speed

– dredging of more canals for accessibility

– policing waterways

– use of dams and reservoirs to control water levels

– introduction of comfortable boats
– use of ice breakers

– involvement of conservation to control dangerous animals

– provision of adequate capital

– construction of canals

– development of the hinterland

– cultivation of good maintenance culture

– enlightenment on the use of inland waterways

– removal of tree stumps

– provision of modern navigational aids

– improved management

Question 2

(a) Outline two characteristic features of each of the following:

(i) conurbation;

(ii) megapolis.

(b) With specific examples, explain any six functions which settlements perform.

Characteristic features of Conurbation are:

– it is an urban settlement

– two or more large cities/towns merge to form Conurbation

– the big cities are merged together by rapid population growth and physical
expansion but with different identities

– the cities retain their distinct identities

– the big cities are linked by an efficient transportation system/network

– the big cities form one large market for industries, trade, and transport

– it is a continuously built-up area

– has a high population density

– Its population is much greater than that of the nearby towns

– it has various industries operating in it

– It relies on the reserves of labor, excellent transport, Medicare, etc.

– conurbation serves as a shopping centre due to the cheap and excellent transport facilities

– it has a unique financial strength

– Examples: Lagos, Accra, Ruhr Valley, Serreaunda, Monrovia, Tokyo, etc

Characteristic features of Megapolis are:

– it is also called a megalopolis/mega-city/supper city

– the highest category of settlement

– has large territories consisting of great conurbations

– it is a highly urbanized region

– a very large city with a population of more than 10 million inhabitants

– an urban complex

– linked with communication/transport networks

– continuous built-up area

– Examples: North East USA, New Delhi, Cairo, Lagos, etc

Question 3

a) Draw a sketch map of Nigeria. On the map, show, and name:

(i) Rivers Niger and Benue;

(ii) Kanji Dam;

(iii) Abuja.

(b) Explain three factors that favor the development of hydroelectric power projects in Nigeria.

(c) State three economic benefits of hydroelectric power projects.

Expected answers for factors that favor the development of hydro-electric power projects in Nigeria are:

– presence of rapids and waterfalls/steep gradient

– abundance of rainfall

– high volume of water in rivers

– adequate high temperature against freezing

– high demand/ market for electricity

– strong bedrock for dam sites

– availability of capital

– availability of skilled and unskilled labor

The Economic Benefits of the hydro-electric power projects are:

– promotion of irrigation

– generation of electricity for industrial use

– generation of electricity for domestic use

– a water supply for industrial use

– water for domestic use

– tourist attraction

– revenue generation

– flood control

– income to workers

– promotion of aquatic research

– improved inland navigation

– development and growth of new towns

– provision of food

– stimulates industrial development

– employment

– training of local technicians

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